No, not without advance permission. If you depart the United States with a pending Form I-485, you have abandoned your application unless you receive permission in advance from USCIS to return to the United States (Advance Parole)
Additionally, CBP may also consider you ineligible to return to the United States as an F-1 student because your application to change status to that of a permanent resident is evidence of intent to immigrate, which is inconsistent with non-immigrant student status.
According to 8 CFR 245.2(a)(4)(ii)(C), I-485 will be automatically abandoned if they leave the US while I-485 is pending unless one of the following is true:
1) They have been granted Advance Parole before they left and return on that Advance Parole before it expires; or
2) They have H1b/H4/L1b/L2/K3/K4/V status when they left, and they return on that same type of visa